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Sports Medicine

ACL Reconstruction :: PCL Reconstruction :: OATS Procedure :: Meniscal Repair
MCL Reconstruction :: Cartilage Implants :: Patella Fracture
Distal Femur Fracture :: Proximal Tibial Fracture

Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is surgery to reconstruct the torn ligament of your knee with a tissue graft. Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and helps stabilize the knee joint. Ligaments are tough, non-stretchable fibers that hold your bones together.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

PCL Reconstruction

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the shinbone.

PCL Reconstruction

OATS Procedure

Osteoarticular transfer system (OATS) is a surgical procedure to treat isolated cartilage defects which usually 10 to 20mm in size. The procedure involves transfer of cartilage plugs taken from the non-weight bearing areas of the joint and transferring into the damaged areas of the joint.

OATS Procedure

Meniscal Repair

Meniscus is the C-shaped two pieces of cartilage located between thighbone and shin bone that act as shock absorbers and cushion the joints. Meniscus distributes the body weight uniformly across the joint and avoids the pressure on any one part of the joint and development of arthritis.

Meniscal Repair

MCL Reconstruction

Medial collateral ligament (MCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and is present on the inside of the knee joint.  This ligament helps stabilize the knee. An injury to the MCL may occur as a result of direct impact to the knee.

MCL Reconstruction

Cartilage Implants

Cartilage implantation also known as known as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an advanced procedure, employing artificially grown cartilage cells, for the repair and replacement of damaged articular cartilage.

Cartilage Implants

Patella Fracture

The knee cap or patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and one of the components of the knee joint, present at the front of the knee. The undersurface of the kneecap and the lower end of the femur are coated with articular cartilage, which helps in smooth movement of the knee joint. The knee cap protects the knee and provides attachment to various muscle groups of the thigh and leg.  Fracture of knee cap is rare and is more common in adult males.

Patella Fracture

Distal Femur Fracture

The femur or thigh bone is the longest and strongest bone in the body, connecting the hip to the knee. Distal femur fracture refers to fracture of the femur just above the knee joint. Distal femur fracture is less common than other types of femoral fractures affecting mostly elderly individuals. Sometimes it can also occur in younger individuals as a result of high energy injuries.

Distal Femur Fracture

Proximal Tibial Fracture

The tibia or shin bone is a major bone of the leg which connects the knee to the ankle. A fracture or break in the upper part of the tibia is known as a proximal tibial fracture and commonly occurs just below the knee joint.

Proximal Tibial Fracture

Sports injuries occur when playing indoor or outdoor sports or while exercising. Sports injuries can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises. The most common sports injuries are sprains and strains, fractures, and dislocations.

The most common treatment recommended for injury is rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE).

  • Rest: Avoid activities that may cause injury
  • Ice: Ice packs can be applied to the injured area which will help to diminish swelling and pain. Ice should be applied over a towel to the affected area for 15-20 minutes four times a day for several days. Never place ice directly over the skin
  • Compression: Compression of the injured area helps to reduce swelling. Elastic wraps, air casts, and splints can accomplish this
  • Elevation: Elevate the injured part above heart level to reduce swelling and pain.

Some of the measures that are followed to prevent sports related injuries include:

  • Follow an exercise program to strengthen the muscles
  • Gradually increase your exercise level and avoid overdoing the exercise
  • Ensure that you wear properly-fitted protective gear such as elbow guards, eye gear, facemasks, mouthguards, and pads, comfortable clothes, and athletic shoes before playing any sports activity which will help to reduce the chances of injury
  • Make sure that you follow warm up and cool down exercises before and after sports activity. Exercises will help to stretch the muscles, increase flexibility, and reduce soft tissue injuries
  • Avoid exercising immediately after eating a large meal
  • Maintain a healthy diet which will nourish the muscles
  • Avoid playing when you are injured or tired. Take a break for sometime after playing
  • Learn all the rules of the game you are participating in
  • Ensure that you are physically fit to play the sport

Some of the common sports injuries include:

Foot and ankle Injuries

Foot and ankle injuries include the injuries in the leg below the knee and they are common while playing sports such as football, hockey, skating and in athletes. Treatment for some of these conditions may be orthotics, braces, physical therapy, injections or surgery. Common sports injuries include sprains and strains, ankle fractures, and Achilles tendinitis.

Shoulder Injuries

Severe pain in shoulders while playing your favorite sports such as tennis, basketball and gymnastics may be because of torn ligament in shoulder or shoulder dislocation. These may be caused by overuse of shoulder while playing sports. Simple pain or acute injuries may be treated with conservative treatment and chronic injuries may require surgical treatment.

Hip Injuries

Fractures of the femur bone, labral tear and hip dislocation are some of the common sports injuries affecting the hip. Hip joint bears more weight and is more susceptible for injuries while playing sports. Hip injuries require immediate medical intervention to avoid further complications. Rehabilitation programs and physical therapy is often recommended following the medical intervention where you need to perform certain exercises to strengthen the muscles and improve the movements.

Knee Injuries

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is major stabilizing ligament in the knee which may tear with over use of knee for playing sports. The ACL has poor ability to heal and may cause instability. Other common sports injuries in knee are cartilage damage and meniscal tear. Knee injuries of sports may require surgical intervention that can be performed using open surgical or minimally invasive technique. Your surgeon will recommend you for physical therapy to strengthen your muscles, improve elasticity and improve the movements of the bones and joints.


Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Sports Medicine Topics

Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

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